An Overview about Bipolar Disorder Endophenotypes

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Fayza Mohammed Hussien Youssef et. al.


Despite considerable evidence that risk for bipolar disorder is inherited, the molecular genetic basis for this illness remains elusive. A recent genome wide association analysis with over 5,000 cases and 6,000 controls implicated two risk genes for the illness, ANK3 and CACNA1C. Endophenotype could help in reducing heterogeneity by defining biological traits that are more direct expressions of gene effects. The aim of this review is to examine the recent literature on clinical, epidemiological, neurobiological, and genetic findings and to select and evaluate candidate endophenotypes for bipolar disorder. research on endophenotypes could be useful to improve psychopathological diagnostics in the long run by dissecting psychiatric macro phenotypes into biologically valid components.

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