http://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/trsg/trs/2017/00000003/00000003/art00007

45% of American Indian high school students tried e-cigarettes. One third of e-cigarette users had never smoked.

Dr. Rhoades and team found that e-cigarette use by American Indian youth is influenced by being in high school, ever smoking, having a friend who smoked or vaped, endorsing e-cig use if offered by a friend, knowing someone who vapes, not perceiving e-cigs as harmful, and believing that vapers have more friends.